Why we should worry about travel demand


Today marks the launch of a new Commission on Travel Demand which I am chairing. This is the first in a series of blog posts where I will explore the thinking behind the Commission and share insights from events, evidence and public meetings the Commission hosts during 2017.

I start by looking at why we should be interested in travel demand. There are certainly greater short run policy priorities out there such as job creation and promoting productivity and competitiveness in a post-Brexit world. In fact, talking about demand can be politically quite challenging as the idea of limiting growth in demand or managing demand in particular places or times of day can be contentious.

However, I would argue that we are in a period of significant change and uncertainty where there are numerous opportunities to shape the course of the future growth in travel demand. Many of these influences…

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NORTHMOST – mathematical modelling in transport

NORTHMOST is a new biannual series of meetings on the topic of mathematical modelling in transport.

Held in December 2016, NORTHMOST 01 focussed on academic research, to encourage networking and collaboration between academics interested in the methodological development of mathematical modelling applied to transport.  The presentations are provided below.

The focus of the meetings will alternate; NORTHMOST 02 – planned for Spring 2017 – will be led by practitioners who are modelling experts. Practitioners will give presentations, with academic researchers in the audience. In addition to giving a forum for expert practitioners to meet and share best practice, a key aim of the series is to close the gap between research and practice, establishing a feedback loop to communicate the needs of practitioners to those working in university research.

For further details please contact Dr Richard Connors

VirtuoCITY – a centre for city simulation


Cities are entering a new age where new technologies could dramatically change the way people move. New insight is required to understand how we will react to these new mobility options. The University of Leeds is developing a new centre, focused on engaging with the public to co-design and demonstrate new mobility options, and to gather feedback and build interest and user-acceptance.

Virtuocity will be a proving ground and accelerator in which emerging technologies are harnessed to develop innovative solutions to challenges facing cities.

Computational transport modelling has been around since the first general purpose computers were developed over 50 years ago. Early models focused on steady-state conditions. With the evolution of processing power, the models have become more detailed and accurate. Modern agent-based transport models capture each pedestrian and each vehicle and validate with data collected in existing cities.


Virtuocity will use these advanced models along with models of future technology to answer questions like: What should mobility in the city of the future look like? What does technology provide? What will users choose, accept and pay for? What does the resulting city look like? Local authorities wish to design their city to encourage healthy lifestyles, have a vibrant downtown and reasonable transit times. Automotive companies and mobility-as-a-service providers are seeking to understand how to design their products to maximise revenues and profits. The only way to answer these questions is with impactful end-user focused co-production and public engagement.

The University has an extensive set of research experience: experiments, data, models and simulations of cities from across the disciplines of social sciences, engineering and medicine. Virtuocity will combine these, so that any researcher can use them in their investigations. Corporate and public partners can also integrate their software, simulations, data and models thereby maximising the research capability of Virtuocity.

Virtuocity will:

  • Work collaboratively with end-users, industry partners and decision makers to answer pressing questions and co-produce new solutions;
  • Bring together a commanding set of shared data and models;
  • Encourage and support safe, efficient and sustainable mobility;
  • Explain and demonstrate new and emerging mobility options
  • Focus on the end-users and gather feedback on user acceptance, interest and choices.

Virtuocity will provide partners with a competitive edge through access to a unique combination of facilities, world leading research and key academic experts.

Corporate Partners
Virtuocity will provide corporate partners with a powerful company resource with members able to enjoy varying degrees of access, benefits and involvement dependent on their needs.

As a manufacturer or technology developer, you will have the opportunity to demonstrate and test your latest systems. Virtuocity will engage your end user in technology/system development by collecting critical feedback on preferences, usability, demand and safety.

As a consultancy or software developer, you will have the opportunity to leverage your own capabilities and software with those of Virtuocity. Bring your clients and customers in to experience Virtuocity technology integrated with your own software and assist them in making the right decisions about future cities.

  • Use of software, data, models, simulations, virtual reality hardware and simulators;
  • Priority access to University researchers, with expertise in a wide variety of fields;
  • The opportunity to place a researcher within the Centre;
  • Preferential access to reports, papers and research outputs;
  • Influence over the Centre’s future research roadmap through a seat on the Advisory Board;
  • The opportunity to contribute and formally link to active projects;
  • Access to joint research funding via collaborative bids;
  • Training opportunities.



Public Partners
As a local, regional, or national Government partner, you will appreciate the opportunity for positive change to be realised from modern mobility technologies. With Virtuocity, you can find out how to encourage your citizens to make healthy choices for mobility, what will make citizens spend more time in the city centres to stimulate vibrant economic centres, and how to reduce traffic jams, congestion, and parking demands. Virtuocity will help you to design cities that are more resilient to floods while reducing air and noise pollution. Citizens and decision-makers will be able to experience and provide feedback on alternative city project designs, before they are built through the use of virtual and augmented reality evaluations from various points of view – ranging from the city planner through service providers to the most vulnerable road users. Designs can be assessed with respect to safety, throughput, efficiency and cost.


Virtuocity will bring together industry expertise, public sector decision makers and academic excellence in a shared collaborative research centre to design the cities of the future. It will offer:

  • A world leading combination of facilities and researchers in a complex, dynamic and multi-disciplinary environment;
  • A coordinated and integrated approach to research to provide insight into the future of cities;
  • Vast experience in using technology to generate reliable and robust outcomes;
  • Interactive research and demonstrations and a proving ground for the co-production of data vital for an evidence based approach to innovation;
  • Collaboration opportunities to achieve better, more cost effective mobility solutions.

To find out more about how your organisation can take advantage of a membership please contact:

Dr Erik Thomasson
Research and Innovation Manager
Email: e.n.thomasson@leeds.ac.uk

Electric vehicles and renewable energy – what are the key issues?

Power grids need to accommodate an increasing renewable generation share, which adds the variability of the weather and climate systems to the electricity distribution network. Further uncertainty on the demand side will be introduced by widespread EVs’ recharging. Transport has been traditionally separate from the electricity grid but the transition to e-mobility will realize a closer integration. New configurations must be found to successfully merge renewable generation, electricity demand, transport/charging habits, and energy storage.


Will EVs be used as grid storage? The case of commuting
Car commuting is comparable to residential electricity usage in terms of societal and environmental relevance. Electricity storage may become the future replacement of “peak-following power plants”, currently turned on when electricity demand is high, and storage may be partly provided by batteries on board future EVs. Whether EVs will bring stability to the energy system or not, it is not straightforward to determine: the main point at stake is the effectiveness of plugged-in vehicles to supplement the electric grid in satisfying demand’s peaks and troughs. Another relevant aspect is the financial viability of using EVs’ batteries for purposes other than traveling, which increases wear and tear. EVs’ maker Tesla recently introduced a lithium-ion battery for residential usage, with technology and cost per unit capacity similar to EVs’ batteries; the divide between the two kinds of applications (cheaper, lower-tech packs for building use with respect to electric cars) may therefore get progressively blurred, thanks to technological advance and scale economy.

When and where will commuters charge their EVs?
It is often assumed EVs’ batteries will be recharged in the dead of night and early morning, when demand is lower than average, to then provide peak power when people wake up. Then, EVs are driven to workplaces by commuters and parked for the day. There, they can be topped up while the sun is shining, driven back home where they provide for the dinner-time peak demand, to start being recharged again late at night. Daytime recharging seems compatible with California power demand (Fig. 1, green curve): topping EVs up during office hours may flatten the “duckshaped” curve and accommodate solar generation. On the other hand, daily UK demand (Fig. 1, blue and red curves) does not display California’s afternoon trough: recharging millions of EVs parked in workplaces’ lots might therefore require additional peak generation rather than providing an outlet to excess power.

Variability in renewable generation and commuting patterns
During daylight hours (Fig. 2) in California, homes with solar panels cover a significant fraction of their own power needs, causing the demand trough displayed by the green curve in Fig. 1. This scenario may be unrealistic for the UK for two reasons. First, overcast skies suppress direct solar radiation, thus cutting up to 85% of clear-sky generation: the “duck” will exist only or mainly in sunny days. Second, the strong generation imbalance from winter to summer [1] due to high latitude can prevent the duck’s trough from occurring in autumn and winter, even with clear-sky conditions.

Each renewable generation mode shows its own peculiar variability and uncertainty pattern on different time scales (from hourly to yearly and beyond) and spatial scales [2], just as car commuting does (e.g., working days vs weekends). A fraction of variability is deterministic (entirely predictable, like the sun’s day-night cycle), whilst another fraction displays various degrees of unpredictability, depending on desired time advance and precision on location (an example being the effect of clouds on photovoltaic generation). With power supply limited to fossil fuel and nuclear power, climate and weather mainly influence the demand side of the energy market. Inclusion of renewables in the mix introduces a “double dependency” on weather/climate which can sometimes damp fluctuations (e.g., summer highs of solar generation in Texas satisfy the increased air conditioning usage) but often amplify them (reduced winter solar generation is coupled with higher heating and lighting needs). Adding EVs to the balance makes the problem even more complicated. For example, bad weather can affect car usage patterns; likewise, heating the cabin of an EV on a winter day increases consumption.

Coping with variability and unpredictability
EVs maximally help the grid if they are plugged-in, with the appropriate charge level, when generation or demand peaks occur. The seasonal imbalance may however cause the future British renewable mix to include a solar share smaller than sunnier countries; alternatively, long-term storage (like using electricity to produce hydrogen) will be the way to carry summer excess energy to the following winter. In either case, the grid may not need EVs’ batteries plugged in at around midday time. On the other hand, wind generation is higher on average during daylight time (Fig. 3), like solar. This might cause a net result similar to the duck curve (by increasing grid power uploading, rather than reducing demand), although periodicities and probabilities of highs/ lows differ from solar. It may be necessary to alter the timing of non-urgent freight and deliveries to respond to predicted grid needs (similarly to what already happens with industrial refrigeration), in line with weather forecasts.


Commuters’ EVs as energy deliverers
EVs will offer an additional opportunity. A future compact electric car with a 50kWh battery capacity can be envisioned as the “typical” vehicle (Tesla model S, a full-size car, has a 85kWh capacity with a 430km range). More than 15 million cars are driven in England and Wales every day for commuting, traveling an average distance of 16 km. Should all become electric, they would carry a capacity of 750GWh. In comparison, the output of the Three Gorges Dam in China, the world’s largest power plant, is 22.5GW: more than 33 hours of the Dam’s output would be needed to recharge these cars. On the other hand, such EVs could satisfy for 21 hours the entire England-Wales average power demand (about 35 GW), and the residential one (11.3GW) for almost 3 days. Commuting patterns often involve cars flowing daily from suburbs to business districts and back: this scheme moves battery capacity and energy from an area to another. 100,000 EVs, with fully-charged 50kWh batteries, driven 20km from home to work every morning, bring 46GWh in business districts, assuming a 4kWh consumption per trip. EVs with batteries significantly larger than needed for just the commuting round trip may be recharged either at home only, or at the workplace only: they can therefore carry energy from one place to another and still be able to commute. The average UK home uses 13kWh/day; a fleet of 1,000 EVs with 50kWh batteries, consuming no more than 10kWh on a return trip, could therefore supply a substantial energy share to the night time energy demand of a residential suburb. Electricity generated near EVs’ recharging locations will also reduce power grid’s load: this effect could be maximal for workplaces adjacent to wind/solar farms or other power plants.

Key messages

  • EVs are often foreseen as a means to stabilize the power grid by providing storage capacity. This vision requires that excess generation and demand peaks both occur when EVs are plugged in.
  • Adding EVs to the energy balance increases complexity and dependency on atmospheric conditions: with the “wrong” combination of climate and energy mix, the need for grid storage may actually grow.
  • Commuting, coupled to proper urban and socioeconomic configuration, may create a net flow of stored energy from residential areas to business districts and back. EVs can be harnessed not only passively, as storage means, but also actively, as energy carriers, to supplement the power grid in transporting energy.

Giuseppe Colantuono
School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds

[1] Colantuono et al., Solar Energy 108, 2014
[2] Colantuono et al., Solar Energy 107, 2014
[3] G. Sinden, Energy Policy 35, 2007

Mobility & Energy Futures Series
Transport consumes a fifth of global energy and has a near-exclusive reliance on petroleum. As such it has an important role to play in the Energy Trilemma of reducing energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emission, creating an energy system built on secure supplies and developing the system in ways which are affordable. Addressing the Energy Trilemma in the transport and mobility sector is especially challenging due to the continued growth in demand for the movement of goods and people, the technical, regulatory and social challenges of moving away from an oil based system of mobility and a complex and fragmented set of stakeholders required to work together to deliver change. Drawing on the expertise and opinions of the University of Leeds academics from different disciplines, this series will highlight the drivers, gaps and opportunities in reducing the energy consumption and carbon emissions from the transport sector in future. This is the fifth briefing in the series. Other issues in the series are available online at http://www.its.leeds.ac.uk/research/mobility-energy-futures-series

Bus services and social deprivation

New research by ITS and KPMG has quantified for the first time the relationship between bus services and social deprivation.

The Value of the Bus to Society report, commissioned by Greener Journeys, demonstrates the role that buses have in helping to reduce social deprivation in the UK, where 1 in 4 people is at risk of social exclusion, and 1 in 4 people do not have access to a car. It reveals that improving bus services boosts jobs and income for UK’s poorest people.

A 10% improvement in local bus services is linked to a 3.6% reduction in social deprivation across England, taking into account employment, income, life expectancy and skills.

thumb-image-200px-wide                                  thumb-image2-200px-wide

The research concludes that a 10% improvement in local bus services in the 10% most deprived neighbourhoods across England would result in:

  • 9,909 more jobs, the result of a 2.7% fall in employment deprivation;
  • 22,647 people with increased income, the result of a 2.8% drop in income deprivation;
  • 2,596 fewer years of life lost;
  • 7, 313 more people with adult skills;
  • 0.7% increase in post-16 education.

“If the Government is to meet its promise of making the UK a country that works for everyone, we must solve the problem of poverty in this country. As this report shows, buses play a central part in fighting poverty, keeping those on lower incomes or the unemployed, connected to economic opportunities. A good bus service can make the difference to whether someone can sustain a job, access vital public services or shop around for low cost goods and services.” Katie Schmuecker, Head of Policy, Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

The report presents the findings of a study that aimed to identify, articulate and quantify the economic, social and environmental impacts of frequent and reliable local bus services, considering the impact that bus services have on the ability of households to participate in economic and social activities and ultimately on levels of economic, social and environmental deprivation.

It builds on existing research by Greener Journeys which shows that buses bring huge economic benefits to the UK. Some 3.5 million people in the UK travel to work by bus, and these commuters generate more than £64 billion worth of goods and services per year. Furthermore, proper investment in local bus infrastructure delivers vast rewards, with every £1 spent on local bus priority measures delivering up to £7 in economic benefit.

About Greener Journeys
Greener Journeys is a campaign dedicated to encouraging people to make more sustainable travel choices. It is a coalition of the UK’s leading public transport organizations, user groups and supporters.  It aims to reduce CO2 emissions from transport by encouraging people to switch some of their car journeys to bus or coach instead. Switching from car to bus for just one journey a month would mean one billion fewer car journeys on our roads and would save 2 million tonnes of CO2 every year. Among its recommendations, Greener Journeys is calling on Government to prioritise investment in buses and local bus infrastructure. It is also asking decision makers to consider the wider social benefits of projects when appraising transport schemes and investment cases.



Can technology support eco-driving?

The challenge: road transport is responsible for almost a quarter of European carbon emissions. The European Commission have set a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% (from 1990 levels) by 2020.

How best to achieve these targets? It’s unrealistic to simply wait for 100% of all road vehicles to be highly automated and, potentially, super-efficient. Besides, travel demand may increase and off-set any benefits, as indicated in a previous briefing in this series (Self-driving Cars: Will they reduce energy use?).

eco driving

New forms of vehicle powertrains such as hybrid and electric spell a positive way forward. Their market share is small however (1.4% of the total new car market in the UK) mainly due to high costs and concerns over battery range. Electric cars in particular suffer from an image problem as the “second run around” in a household. There is intense debate about whether and when new powertrain types can contribute substantially to emissions reduction. For example, Collantes (2007) predicted that fuel-cell vehicles will capture 5% of the new-vehicle market sometime between 2020 and 2060; however they are not yet commercially available in Europe. Therefore placing responsibility on the concept of full automation or relying on changes in car buying strategies is a passive and risky approach.

Going beyond the state-of-the-art
Eco-driving is the generic name for a driving style or set of behaviours which minimise fuel use. Accelerating more gently and shifting through the gears in an efficient way are examples of eco-driving. Additionally, before setting out on a trip a driver can improve the fuel efficiency of their vehicle via proper vehicle maintenance and tyre inflation, appropriate trip planning and consideration of low-carbon alternatives. The resulting fuel savings, as measured relative to ‘normal’ driving, vary widely – with figures between 3-20%. These data are highly dependent on the type of intervention tested, the vehicles and participants involved in the studies, as well as the typology of the roads on which the driving was undertaken.

Thus fuel efficient driving is a complex matter and in itself, driving is a complex behaviour, involving hundreds of separate tasks. Drivers are required to simultaneously control the vehicle, adjust their speed and heading according to the external conditions, deal with hazards and make navigational decisions. Eco-driving behaviour is often summarised by some simple instructions which are meant to be easily understood by drivers; but even they can sometimes be misunderstood or found to be misleading. Previous research undertaken at the University of Leeds (Pampel et al. 2014) suggests that drivers do have “mental models” of eco-driving – i.e. they know what they should do to save fuel, however in experimental trials these mental models were not activated and did not translate into fuel efficient behaviour. In this study, we observed that when drivers were prompted to drive in an eco-friendly way, they could do so – but it was easily disrupted; when they had to switch to a safety focus, drivers did not revert to their eco-driving automatically. This suggests that drivers need continual reminders and support for eco-driving.

There is already a substantial market in eco-driving devices, applications and vehicle manufacturers’ integrated systems. What is lacking is a robust comparison between these technologies and exploration of varying modalities by which drivers wish to receive ecodriving support. Presenting drivers with information solely via the visual channel may not only be detrimental to safety, but also not very intuitive. After all, the “golden rules” of eco-driving refer to smoother acceleration and braking; thus there could be disconnect between what the eye sees on a visual display and how the foot should behave. Perhaps “green feet” need to be nurtured and encouraged via the vehicle pedals, not the dashboard?

The ecoDriver project (www.ecodriver-project.eu), led by the University of Leeds, challenged the state of the art by developing and testing a coherent set of eco-driving concepts and technologies. These ranged from low cost apps to high-end integrated systems. What underpinned them however, was the accuracy of the eco-driving guidance; it was real-time and situation relevant. When is the optimal time to receive guidance on the best way to ascend a hill? Directly before it. When should a driver receive feedback on their performance? As soon as possible afterwards. The advice was also constant, via the presentation of a “green speed.” Using these concepts the systems were created and tested in both simulators and on real roads across seven European countries.

Real roads, real drivers
The resulting trials, the largest yet in Europe, produced 340,000 km of data. The technologies included haptic (communication which recreates the sense of touch by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the user, in this case via the accelerator) and visual elements, supplemented with auditory prompts at key points. Both controlled (set routes) and naturalistic (participants could travel anywhere) trials were carried out. These were supported by a structured, experimental design with periods of driving with and without the eco-driving technology. Questionnaire data supplemented the objective data regarding speed and acceleration – both vital to evaluating compliance with eco-driving advice and energy savings.

Across all systems and all road types, average fuel savings were approximately 4%, when the eco-driving advice was active. Similar reductions in NOx values were also found. Digging deeper into the data, embedded systems (which use detailed on-board vehicle data) performed better than the smartphone app; the addition of a haptic element further decreased fuel consumption by up to 3%. This reduction may seem relatively small, but such marginal gains may combine with other initiatives (e.g. cleaner engines) to help reach the EU target.

These energy savings are captured as a direct result of changes in driver behaviour as encouraged by the in-vehicle technologies. Such behaviours include reductions in average speed and acceleration as well as earlier shifting up through the gears. The effects were particularly strong on rural roads, where drivers were less constrained by the behaviour of other traffic. Applying the golden rules on urban roads is difficult because there are many constraints related to safety that are a priority for the driver. On the other hand, there are very few constraints on motorways, and driving there is generally smoother. Of course these changes in behaviour as well as leading to energy savings, are also safety-beneficial. Decreases in speed around safety-critical locations such as pedestrian crossings and junctions carry benefits, particularly for vulnerable road users.

The future of eco-driving
Driving should always retain safety at its core. It is fortunate that improvements in safety, whether through road design, enforcement or in-vehicle safety systems, can also result in less energy being used. We still don’t know whether drivers are more inclined to behave in the way they do because they believe it’s safer or because they’re saving energy. Our results also suggest that the energy savings vary widely between different drivers – with some achieving 20% reductions. Personalisation is key here – the type of information and advice which motivates drivers may differ. One driver may be more inclined to save fuel if the monetary benefits are presented; another may be motivated by environmental concerns (their carbon footprint). Yet another driver might not be concerned about either financial or environmental savings and simply – drive. Maybe this is the most challenging aspect of eco-driving – to be able to embed eco-driving practices into the norm much as the putting on of a seat-belt is (for the majority of drivers) part of their mental model for commencing a car trip. For now though, it is becoming increasingly clear that a one-off reminder at the beginning of a trip is not sufficient to encourage and maintain eco-driving behaviours. Humans, it seems, can benefit from technology to help them cultivate their green feet.

Dr Samantha Jamson
Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds

Pampel SM; Jamson SL; Hibberd DL; Barnard Y (2014) How I reduce fuel consumption: An experimental study on mental models of eco-driving. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, doi: 10.1016/j.trc.2015.02.005

Collantes, G.O. (2007) Incorporating stakeholders’ perspectives into models of new technology diffusion: the case of fuel-cell vehicles. Technology Forecast Social Change 74: 267-280.


Post WCTR – More madness in Hangzou


By Jennifer Cleaver

Hangzhou (population 8,700,000) is described by Chinahighlights.com as “a large and relatively wealthy port city on the Yangtze River near the sea. It has long been an imperial capital or a provincial capital”. Arriving by train into complex station, no English was spoken or written. It later became apparent that although I could produce my final destination in the local written language to the driver this did not necessarily mean they could read it, or read at all. This was a recurring problem for a non-Chinese speaker trying to communicate without any understanding of a non-phonetic language. Nothing seemed to work unless you befriend a local to translate for you, and they are not always easy to find.

re-cycle   Hangzhou_bike_sharing_station

I visited Hangzhou as an escape from the big city and to enjoy the” tranquillity” of the west lake, to hire a bike and breath in the  fresh air ….easier said than done. Hangzhou encouragingly does have the largest “Boris bike” system in the world with over 2700 bike stations across the city. I hired a bike for 8 hours and it cost me no more than £2.50. It was definitely a great, cheap and independent way to travel, yet having been a pedestrian and a passenger in the Chinese traffic system this still did not fully prepare me for running the gauntlet and surviving the death run of being a cyclist. I’m no stranger to assertive cycling but this experience increased my levels of alertness and simultaneously decreased my lifespan.

The tranquil bike ride across traffic free causeways offered a new challenge, whilst there may have been no cars there were hoards of people. All of them glued to their smart phones, completely unaware of their surroundings and none of them looking upwards or forwards. Others walking, running, cycling, meandering, getting on and off boat trips, or stopping suddenly to take photos or visit a street vendor. In addition, there are the tourist buses that shout over a megaphone that they are approaching yet still will not stop and you could become collateral damage if you don’t move to the side, even if that means you plough into a group of elderly local tourists eating deep fried chicken feet snacks.  Hangzhou made me think of the Emerald City in the Wizard of Oz. Nothing is as it seems, the delicate bird song is actually piped music with speakers hidden in fake bird nests, the vines creeping up the trees are the electric cables, the hills are purpose built, the foliage is manufactured. It is a fake place, not just in Tony Hilfiger and Louise Vuitton clothing and handbags but in the Disney style world it’s designed. Having said that I liked it, even after I realized it wasn’t real, it was nicer to have than not to have.